French President Emmanuel Macron on Sunday lost his parliamentary majority after major election gains by a newly formed left-wing alliance and the far right, in a stunning blow to his plans for major second-term reform.
The result threw French politics into turmoil, raising the prospect of a paralysed legislature or messy coalitions with Macron being forced to reach out to new allies.
Macron's "Together" coalition was on course to be the biggest party in the next National Assembly, but with 200-260 seats it will be short of the 289 seats needed for a majority, according to a range of projections by five French polling firms after Sunday's second round.
"Of course, it's a first place that is disappointing," government spokeswoman Olivia Gregoire said. "We're lower than we would have hoped."
The outcome severely tarnished Macron's April presidential election victory when he defeated the far-right to be the first French president to win a second term in over two decades.
The new left-wing coalition NUPES, led by the 70-year-old hard-left figurehead Jean-Luc Melenchon, was on course to win 149-200 seats, according to projections.
The coalition, formed in May after the left splintered for April's presidential elections, brings together Socialists, the hard left, Communists and greens.
The left only had 60 seats in the outgoing parliament, meaning they could triple their representation.
Far-right leader Marine Le Pen's National Rally party was also on track for huge gains after having only eight seats in the outgoing parliament.
It was due to send 60-102 MPs to the new parliament, according to the projections. (AFP)