Reigning champions Italy secured their ticket for Euro 2024 on Monday after holding on for a nervy goalless draw against Ukraine in their final qualifier, while the Czech Republic and Slovenia also clinched places at next year's finals.
Italy only needed the draw in order to qualify but a defeat against their direct rivals in Group C would have left their fate to be decided in play-offs next March.
That was a scenario they desperately wanted to avoid following the trauma of failing to qualify for the 2018 and 2022 World Cups after losing in play-offs, either side of winning the last European Championship in 2021.
The high stakes made it a tense occasion and the two nations finish level on 14 points behind England in Group C, but Italy have the better head-to-head record having won 2-1 in Milan in September.
Ukraine must therefore negotiate the play-offs if they are to return to Germany for the tournament next June.
England had already qualified before their trip to Skopje to play North Macedonia, when they needed a second-half own goal to earn a 1-1 draw and finish their campaign undefeated.
Enis Bardhi opened the scoring for North Macedonia four minutes before half-time, following up to net after his penalty was saved by Jordan Pickford.
England drew level just before the hour mark as Jani Atanasov diverted a Phil Foden corner into his own net.
The Czech Republic only needed a draw at home to Moldova to secure their place at an eighth consecutive Euro finals, and the outcome was never in doubt as they eased to a 3-0 victory.
They finish second in Group E behind Albania but their evening was overshadowed by coach Jaroslav Silhavy announcing his resignation immediately after the game.
Slovenia will appear at the Euro for the first time since 2000 after their 2-1 win at home to Kazakhstan in Ljubljana clinched second place behind Denmark in Group H.
Kazakhstan would have qualified with a win but will instead now go into the play-offs as their hopes of appearing at first major tournament remain alive. (AFP)