The Chief Executive of the Hospital Authority, Leung Pak-yin, says he expects to see a shortage of at least 500 doctors by the year 2036.
Under the government's long-term hospital development plan announced in 2016, there will be an extra 14,000 hospital beds available in the public healthcare system by then.
Speaking at a forum on Saturday, Leung said he estimates that Hong Kong will need about 2,000 doctors to cope, but considering factors such as wastage, there will probably be a shortage of between 500 and 600 doctors.
Leung said the gap may have to be filled by foreign doctors, or by increasing the supply of local medical students.
Meanwhile, Health Secretary Sophia Chan, who also attended the forum, said opening a new medical school in Hong Kong would put further strain on the current shortage of university staff, but added there is still room for looking further into the issue.